Foundational reading instruction is focused on “word-attack” skills, vocabulary development, and comprehension by using a broad spectrum of guided reading, supplemented with rich picture books. Practicing a variety of reading strategies, readers develop their independent skills while participating in book clubs, reading and discussing novels, and engaging in literature units. The student’s transition from the goal of learning to read to the skill of reading to learn. Many genres of literature are explored throughout the classrooms. Writing focuses on grammar, sentence construction, and paragraph construction. These acquired language arts skills are integrated across the curriculum in the form of research papers and presentations.